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公共英語考試《三級》閱讀理解練習(7)

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發布時間:2019年06月20日 09:56:37 來源:環球網校 點擊量:

【摘要】小編給大家帶來公共英語考試《三級》閱讀理解練習(7),希望對大家有所幫助。

Technology has been an encouragement of historical change. It acted as such a force in Eng- land beginning in the eighteenth century, and across the entire Western World in the nineteenth. Rapid advances were made in the use of scientific findings in the manufacture (制造 ) of goods, which has changed ideas about work. One of the first changes was that other forms of energy have taken the place of human power. Along with this came the increased use of machines to manufac- ture products in less time..

People also developed machines that could produce the same parts for a product: each nail was exactly like every other nail, meaning that each nail could be changed for every other nail. This means that goods could be mass produced, though mass production required breaking production down into smaller and smaller tasks.

Once this was done, workers no longer started on the product and labored to complete it. In- stead, they might work only one thousandth of it, other workers completing their own parts in cer- tain order. There is nothing strange about this manufacturing work by today' s standards. Highly skilled workers were unable to compare with the new production techniques, as mass production al- lowed goods of high standard to be produced in greater number than could ever be done by hand. But the skilled worker wasn' t the only loser, the common workers lost too. Similar changes forced farmers away. The increased mechanization(機械化) of agriculture freed masses of workers from ploughing the land and harvesting its crops. They had little choice but to stream toward the rapidly developing industrial centers. Increasingly, standards were set by machines. Workers no longer owned their own tools, their skill was no longer valued, and pride in their work was no longer pos- sible. Workers fed, looked after and repaired the machines that could work faster than humans at greatly reduced cost.

26. In this passage, which of the following is NOT considered as a change caused by the use of scientific findings in the production of goods?

A. Other forms of energy have taken the place of human power.

B. The increased exploitation of workers in the 19th century.

C. The increased use of machines to make products in less time.

D. The use of machines producing parts of the same standard.

27. The underlined word "this" in the fLrSt paragraph refers to

A. the use of scientific findings

B. the practice of producing the same parts for a product

C. the human power being replaced by other forms of energy

D. the technology becoming the encouragement of historical change

28. The underlined word "this" in the second paragraph refers to the change that

A. each nail could be taken the place of by every other nail

B. each nail was exactly like every other nail

C. producing tasks became smaller and smaller

D. goods could be mass produced

29. According to the writer, highly skilled workers

A. completely disappeared with the coming of the factory system

B. were dismissed by the boss

C. were unable to produce goods of high standard

D. were unable to produce fine goods at that same speed as machines

30. According to the passage, what did the farmers have to do with the coming of mechanization of agriculture?

A. Many of them had to leave their farmland for industrial centers.

B. They stuck to their farm work.

C. They refused to use machines.

D. They did their best to learn how to use the machines.

參考譯文

技術已經成為歷史性改變的一種激勵。在十八世紀初的英國和十九世紀的整個西方世界,技術就具有這樣的一種力量。在商品制造領域,科學發現物的使用使得商品制造領域取得了快速改進,這改變了人

們對工作的看法。最初的一種改變就是人力被其他形式的能量所代替。隨之而來的是機器的加大使用,以便在更少的時間里生產產品。

人們也開發了可以用來生產一種產品相同零件的機器:每個釘子都造得跟其他任何釘子完全相同,也就是每個釘子都可以跟其他釘子互換。這就意味著商品可以大規模生產,雖然大規模生產要求把生產分成一個一個更小的部分。

一旦它實現,工人們再也不用著手處理產品以及花力氣完成產品。取而代之的是,他們也許只工作過去工作量的千分之一,另外的工人按一定工序完成各自的部分就可以了。按照今天的標準,這種生產工作沒什么令人奇怪的。技術高超的工人無法跟這種新的生產技藝相媲關。因為大規模生產使高規格的商品的大批量生產成為現實,而手工制作相形見絀。然而,技術好的個人并非唯一的受損失者,普通工人也如此。相似的改變讓農民地位不保。不斷增加的農業機械化把大批農民從耕地和農作物收獲中解放出來。除了涌入快速發展的工業中心,他們別無選擇。規則日益被機器制定。工人不再擁有自己的工具。他們的技術不再有價值,從而工作中的自豪感不再存在。工人供養、照顧和維修那些遠比人類更有工作效率的機器,這大大減少了花費。

答案及解析

26.B【解析】細節題。原文中并未說l9世紀開始對工人剝削的增加。其余三項均在第一段中間出現。所以此題選擇B。

27.c【解析】理解題。單詞this指上文“0ther forms of energy have taken the place of human power.”(其他形式的能源已經代替了人類的勞動力)的內容。所以此題選擇c。

28.D【解析】理解題。在條件句中,this指下文“goods could be mass produced”(貨物大批生產)。所以此題選擇D

29.D【解析】判斷推理題。可從第三段第四句“Highly skilled workers were unable to compare with the new production techniques.”(技術高超的工人也無法和新的生產技術相比)可知答案。所以此題選擇D。

30.A【解析】判斷推理題。可根據第三段中的“Similar changes forcedfarmers away.”(類似的改變趕走了農民)及“They had littlechoice but to stream toward the rapidly developing industrial cen-ters.”(除了慢慢向工業中心轉移,他們沒有其他選擇)。所以此題選擇A。

分享到: 編輯:紀文凱

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